What causes homelessness?
Feb 02, · The homeless also have poor quality of life, characterized, as noted in various studies, by chronic pain associated with poor sleeping conditions and limited access to medications and other salutary resources. Skin and foot problems, dental problems, and chronic infectious diseases are also well-described among homeless populations. households are at a higher risk for evictions and, in worst cases, homelessness, when faced with an unexpected financial shock. • Homelessness disproportionately impacts people of color. African-American households make up 13% of the country’s population, but represent 40% of people experiencing homelessness. Racial justice.
Homelessness has been quite visible in our community over the past year, particularly after the Long Island Bridge closingwhich left more than people overnight without a place to live.
Various services across the city have stepped up to take care of this population, including new shelters and the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program.
Today a few thoughts on homelessness, its health consequences, and its causes. The US Department of Housing and Urban Doez conducts an annual count of homeless people in the US, and found an average ofpeople living on the streets per night in January This number has declined overall in the past few yearspeople were homeless inbut has increased in various places, importantly in New York Citywhere about 14 percent of what consumer products contain triclosan national homeless population resides.
Figure 1 below shows changes in homelessness nationally over the past two years. The majority of homeless people are only considered homeless for a short time, but a sub-population of the homeless are chronically homeless for 30 to 40 years.
Furthermore, 36 percent of all homeless individuals were part of families with children. This is shown in Figure 2. There is abundant evidence about how to put psx games on psp health consequences of homelessness.
At a fundamental level, the homeless have higher premature mortality than those who are appropriately housed, with injuries, unintentional overdose, and extreme weather events being important drivers of this mortality.
The homeless also have poor quality of life, characterized, as noted in various studies, dofs chronic pain associated with poor sleeping conditions and limited access to medications and other salutary resources. Skin and foot problemsdental problems, and chronic infectious diseases are homelessnrss well-described among homeless populations. For a comprehensive review of the health of the homeless, I would refer to this published work. The intractability of homelessness—we all know that homelessness is a challenge, and that it threatens health—presents challenges both to how we think of homelessness and its consequences, and how we might whag solutions.
Perhaps one useful frame is to consider homelessness across the lifecourse, by way of highlighting the factors that are coincident with, and contribute to, homelessness.
Twenty-three percent of the homeless population in the US is under the age of Importantly, and signaling one of the central contributors to homelessness, a sample of homeless adolescents in Los Angeles showed that 32 percent reported a need for help with mental health problems and 15 percent met criteria for emotional distress. The proportion of those with emotional distress was higher among gay, lesbian, or bisexual youth as well as black youth.
It has been estimated that roughly three times as many homeless adolescents suffer from depression compared to other adolescents. Homeless adolescents doez also likely to experience violence : 21 percent to 42 percent report sexual abuse, compared to 1 percent to 3 percent of the general population, and about 40 percent have reported being assaulted with a weapon. About 40 percent identify as LGBT. As with youth, homeless adults are also at greater risk of substance use disorders and overdose compared with the general population.
They are also very likely to smoke tobacco. Homeless adults are disproportionately affected by psychiatric disordersthough it is difficult to estimate the true burden among this population, considering they are usually excluded from national surveys. Homeless people with mental illnesses tend to have less contact with family or friends and are more likely to remain homeless for a longer time period.
Older individuals are at risk of being homeless later in life oroblems to lack of income. Specifically, those younger than 65 years old who do not yet receive Medicare or social security benefits and are unemployed may be especially vulnerable.
Additionally, older veterans make up a large portion of the homeless population, although the proportion of veterans who are homeless has decreased since In January47, veterans were considered homeless on a given night.
Therefore, homelessness is overwhelmingly coincident with socioeconomic vulnerability and with poor behavioral health, both mental illness and substance use. Which leads to the approach we might consider wht to mitigate the consequences of homelessness. Much of the literature in the area suggests that interventions that provide case management for substance use and mental illness and critical time intervention approaches to mitigate the consequences of acute stressors can be effective in reduction of homelessness.
However, these approaches rest on health care and interventions uomelessness in health care systems. They do not, however, obviate, nor supplant, the centrality of approaches that tackle the social policies and structural factors—including absence of affordable housing and of social safety nets that target vulnerable and low-income individuals—that ultimately set the conditions for homelessness and unstable housing for marginalized populations.
Homelessness, Its Consequences, and Its Causes. Boston University moderates comments to facilitate an informed, substantive, civil conversation. Abusive, profane, self-promotional, misleading, incoherent or off-topic comments will be rejected. Moderators are staffed during regular business hours EST and can only accept comments homelssness in English. It is what disease does west nile virus cause to see the emphasis this week on homelessness.
Another issue intertwined with homelessness is incarceration. Homeless shelters are where quite a few end up going. Programs that provide some support to people toward the end of their sentence and then in the crucial first days and weeks after returning to the community are another approach to stemming some of the homelessness.
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1. Lack of a Living Wage
Apr 17, · America's Homelessness Problem Is About To Get Much Worse For some very valid reasons, the U. S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) has issued an . On any given night, hundreds of thousands of people are homeless in the United States. 1 These people might be chronically homeless, have temporarily lost their shelter, be fleeing domestic violence, or facing any number of other issues. 2 Homelessness is closely connected to declines in physical and mental health; homeless persons experience high rates of health problems such as HIV infection, alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, tuberculosis, . Jun 25, · Though most shelters try to welcome in as many people as possible, many are already filled to capacity, and homeless people will then be at risk of hypothermia, frostbite, dehydration or heat stroke, depending on the season. There is also the issue of hygiene, as homeless people don't have access to bathing facilities.
Homelessness in America may soon multiply many times due to evictions and foreclosures AP For some very valid reasons, the U. But the eviction moratorium cannot last forever, and the stated purpose of the moratorium to combat COVID is rapidly being negated by the numbers of Americans who have been vaccinated and predictions that all Americans will have had at least access to vaccinations by June, There is no "free lunch" here as in anything, and while some Americans have benefitted from the eviction moratorium, other Americans have suffered; namely, landlords.
While it is often convenient to picture landlords as faceless and greedy slumlords or real estate investment trusts that are concerned with little more than how large investor profit distributions can be, the truth is often very different.
However, the Constitution has been shown to be somewhat flexible in practice during times of national emergencies you can ask the Japanese Americans interned during the Second World War about that flexibility , and so long as the emergency exists the courts will either look the other way or take their time in resolving some of these difficult issues. Nonetheless, at some near point in time, the eviction moratorium will no longer be constitutionally sustainable and will have to come to an end.
That is simply a fact, as immutable as gravity, and all the aforementioned issues none of which I intend to argue herein simply build up to this fact. What I do want to discuss, from the perspective of a creditor-debtor attorney, is what happens when the eviction moratorium is lifted. There are now law offices across America that have stacks of papers waiting on their desks to be filed with the court clerks and delivered by process servers to cause evictions that will probably number in the millions.
To give an idea of the numbers involved, the U. Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey estimates that approximately 4. If these folks are forced out, where are they going to go? Here we arrive at the single biggest problem: Bad credit. The folks who are being evicted or foreclosed upon which will result in eviction if they do not vacate the premises voluntarily , will suffer from bad credit. With bad credit, it may be very difficult for these folks to find new accommodations.
The vast majority of landlords, having just suffered a terrible year themselves and quite possibly just fought their own battles to evict holder tenants, are not going to be in a frame of mind to accept folks who were themselves just evicted or couldn't pay their loan. It is thus entirely possible that large number of the recently evicted or foreclosed upon will find themselves homeless. To put these numbers into perspective, consider that the U. If suddenly another 4. We're talking about a problem of John Steinbeckian proportions.
Now, not all these folks will necessarily become homeless. But that still leaves an awfully lot of folks who can't make such arrangements and will find themselves in a state of homelessness. The problem is compounded by the fact that care for our existing , homeless in America was already marginal at best.
Care facilities everywhere are inadequate, at best, and social services struggle to provide even the most minimal human subsistence for this population. Instead, America's attitude towards the homeless problem has historically been one of sweeping it under the rug combined with the NIMBYism "Not In My Backyard" of shooing the homelessness into the most dilapidated parts of cities, out of sight, out of mind.
To suddenly triple, quadruple, or have any worse increase in homelessness will utterly crush the flimsy and already-inadequate social safety net that we have for these folks. John Steinbeckian, indeed. This is a problem without any easy solutions, and one which will severely challenge the Biden Administration just as it challenged the Roosevelt Administration in the s.
However, I do humbly make my own minor suggestion, which is to consider the concept of a "credit holiday" for some period of time, which means that for some period of time landlords cannot deny rental availability based on bad credit or a recent history of eviction if somebody is a serial deadbeat who never pays rent, that's another story.
Perhaps the credit holiday could work by simply creating a blank spot in one's credit history from March, , when the pandemic started, to some future date.
Detractors of such an idea would quite rightly point out that giving such a credit holiday would again put the burden back on landlords, so there would have to be tax or other incentives given to landlords who accept renters with bad creditor or a who have taken advantage of this credit holiday. Such incentives could, for instance, come in the form of allowing landlords to increase their tax basis so that when eventually they do sell their properties, they can get relief from the capital gains that they would ordinarily pay on such sales.
And, after all, landlords fundamentally desire to lease out their residences and not have them sit unoccupied. Given the proper balance of stick and carrot, it might just be possible to avoid another round of Hoovervilles. Whatever the solution, the Administration and Congress need to be working on this problem now, and not waiting as they usually do for the problem to ripen into a disaster come Proactively dealing with this issue will in the end cause a lot less pain and suffering for everybody than waiting to retroactively clean up the mess, and not just financially but also emotionally for the folks who may be forced into an extended period of homelessness.
Those stacks of paper sitting in the law offices all across our great nation are not going to wait. My practice is in the areas of creditor-debtor law and captive insurance. I am the. I am the author of books on asset protection, captive insurance, charging orders, and others. I have twice been an expert witness to the U. I frequently lecture to attorney groups nationwide and at all levels for their continuing legal education.
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Jay Adkisson Contributor. Personal Finance. The Eviction Moratorium Ends Soon. Is More Rent Relief Next? By Lisa Rowan. Jay Adkisson. I am the … Read More. Read Less.
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