Why Quitting Smoking Is Hard
Learn about the impact of smoking and tobacco use on the health of the nation and on individuals, actions to prevent youth from starting to use tobacco, smoke-free environments, programs to help tobacco users quit, and steps to eliminate tobacco-related health disparities in . Mar 18, · Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the United States. About 34 million US adults smoke cigarettes, and 58 million nonsmokers are exposed to secondhand smoke. Every day, about 1, young people under age 18 try their first cigarette, and nearly become daily cigarette smokers.
The medical consequences of tobacco use—including secondhand exposure—make tobacco control and smoking prevention crucial parts of any public health strategy. Researchers estimate that these tobacco control efforts are associated with averting an estimated 8 million premature deaths and extending the average life expectancy of men by 2.
Prevention can take cigatette form of policy-level measures, such as increased taxation of tobacco products; stricter laws and enforcement of laws regulating who can purchase tobacco products; how and where they can be purchased; where and when they can be used i.
Over studies have shown that higher taxes on cigarettes, for example, produce significant reductions in smoking, especially among youth and lower-income individuals. Prevention can also take place at the school or community level. Merely educating potential smokers about the health risks has not proven what is a bicycle chainstay. Risk factors for smoking include having family members or peers who smoke, being in a lower socioeconomic status, living in a neighborhood with high density of tobacco outlets, not participating in team sports, being exposed to smoking in movies, and being sensation-seeking.
Males are also more likely to take up smoking in adolescence than females. Some evidence-based interventions show lasting effects on reducing smoking initiation. For instance, communities utilizing the intervention-delivery system, Communities that Care CTC for students cigaretet 10 to14 show sustained reduction in male cigarette initiation up to 9 years after the end of the intervention. National Institutes of Health. Drug Topics. More Drug Topics. Quick Links. About NIDA. Research Report. Prev Next.
Smoking Is A Problem Of Smoking
Tobacco contains nicotine, an alkaloid that is addictive and can have both stimulating and tranquilizing psychoactive effects. The smoking of tobacco, long practiced by American Indians, was introduced to Europe by Christopher Columbus and other explorers. Smoking soon spread to other areas and today is widely practiced around the world despite medical, social, and religious arguments against it. Nicotine is a highly addictive chemical compound present in the tobacco plant. Tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah tobacco, and most e-cigarettes, contain Estimated Reading Time: 8 mins. 53 rows · Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins.
Smoking , the act of inhaling and exhaling the fumes of burning plant material. A variety of plant materials are smoked, including marijuana and hashish , but the act is most commonly associated with tobacco as smoked in a cigarette , cigar , or pipe. Tobacco contains nicotine , an alkaloid that is addictive and can have both stimulating and tranquilizing psychoactive effects. The smoking of tobacco, long practiced by American Indians , was introduced to Europe by Christopher Columbus and other explorers.
Smoking soon spread to other areas and today is widely practiced around the world despite medical, social, and religious arguments against it. At the dawn of the 20th century, the most common tobacco products were cigars, pipe tobacco, and chewing tobacco.
The mass production of cigarettes was in its infancy, although cigarette smoking was beginning to increase dramatically. Moreover, because of the rapid increase in smoking in developing countries in the late 20th century, the number of smoking-related deaths per year was projected to rise rapidly in the 21st century.
For example, the World Health Organization WHO estimated that in the late s there were approximately four million tobacco-caused deaths per year worldwide.
This estimate was increased to approximately five million in and six million in and was expected to reach eight million per year by An estimated 80 percent of those deaths were projected to occur in developing countries. Indeed, although tobacco use was declining in many countries of western Europe and North America and in Australia, it continued to increase in countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. The primary cause of the escalation in the number of deaths and incidents of disease from tobacco is the large increase in cigarette smoking during the 20th century.
Nonetheless, all tobacco products are toxic and addictive. In some regions of the world, the use of smokeless tobacco products is a major health concern. The smoke produced when tobacco and these additives are burned consists of more than 4, chemical compounds. Many of these compounds are highly toxic, and they have diverse effects on health. The primary constituents of tobacco smoke are nicotine , tar the particulate residue from combustion , and gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Although nicotine can be poisonous at very high dosages, its toxic effect as a component of tobacco smoke is generally considered modest compared with that of many other toxins in the smoke. The main health effect of nicotine is its addictiveness.
Carbon monoxide has profound, immediate health effects. It passes easily from the lungs into the bloodstream, where it binds to hemoglobin , the molecule in red blood cells that is responsible for the transfer of oxygen in the body. Carbon monoxide displaces oxygen on the hemoglobin molecule and is removed only slowly. Therefore, smokers frequently accumulate high levels of carbon monoxide, which starves the body of oxygen and puts an enormous strain on the entire cardiovascular system.
The harmful effects of smoking are not limited to the smoker. The toxic components of tobacco smoke are found not only in the smoke that the smoker inhales but also in environmental tobacco smoke, or secondhand smoke—that is, the smoke exhaled by the smoker mainstream smoke and the smoke that rises directly from the smoldering tobacco sidestream smoke.
Nonsmokers who are routinely exposed to environmental tobacco smoke are at increased risk for some of the same diseases that afflict smokers, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Clean-air laws that prohibit cigarette smoking are becoming widespread.
In the s and s, such laws typically required that nonsmoking areas be established in restaurants and workplaces. However, the finding that toxins in environmental smoke could easily diffuse across large spaces led to much stronger bans. Since many cities, states, and regions worldwide, including New York City in , Scotland in , Nairobi in , and Chicago in , have implemented complete smoking bans in restaurants, taverns , and enclosed workplaces.
A ban introduced in in China , which was home to one-third of the global smoking population , barred smoking in hotels, restaurants, and other indoor public spaces the ban did not include smoking in workplaces, nor did it specify penalties. In addition, entire countries have implemented smoking bans in workplaces or restaurants or, in some cases, in all public areas, including Ireland , Norway , and New Zealand in and France and India in In Bhutan became the first country to ban both smoking in public places and the sale of tobacco products.
Article Introduction Smoking and health Health consequences of smoking Addiction Cancer Lung disease Heart disease Effects on pregnancy Smoking cessation Behavioral intervention Nicotine replacement therapy Nicotine patch Nicotine gum and lozenges Nicotine nasal spray Nicotine inhaler Sublingual nicotine tablets Bupropion Other approaches to smoking cessation Smoking and public policy The goals and strategies of public policy on smoking Regulation Taxation Litigation against the tobacco industry A social and cultural history of smoking Tobacco in New World culture Tobacco in Old World culture The age of the cigarette Mass production and mass appeal The antismoking movement Show more.
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External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. See Article History. Examine effects of smoking on lung tissue and various stages of respiratory disease. Tissue damage, in the forms of bronchitis and emphysema, is evident when the cross section of a normal lung is compared with the lungs of light and heavy smokers. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.
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