Timeline of the American Revolution
Mar 30, · July 10 - Albany Plan of Union—Benjamin Franklin proposes a single government for the colonies February 10 - The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War. The English drive the French from North America, and the English national debt soars. – French and Indian War The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War, the American phase of a worldwide nine years’ war fought between France and Great Britain. (The European phase was the Seven Years’ War.) As a result of the war, France ceded all of its North American possessions east of the Mississippi River to Britain.
Instead, the banding together of the 13 colonies to fight and win a war of independence against the Crown was the culmination of a series of events, which had begun more than a decade earlier. Here are a few of the pivotal moments that led to the American Revolution.
Sheet of penny revenue stamps printed by Britain for the American colonies, after the Stamp Act of To recoup some of the massive debt left over from the war with France, Parliament passed laws such as what events happened in the american revolution Stamp Actwhich for the first time taxed a wide range of transactions in the colonies. They resented not only having to buy goods from the British but pay tax on them as well.
Ultimately, Benjamin Franklin convinced the British to rescind it, what events happened in the american revolution that only made things worse. An American colonist reads with concern the royal proclamation of a tax on tea in the colonies as a British soldier stands nearby with rifle and bayonet, Boston, The tax on tea was one of the clauses of the Townshend Acts. Parliament again tried to assert its authority by passing legislation to tax goods that the Americans imported from Great Britain.
The Crown established a board of customs commissioners to stop smuggling and corruption among local officials in the colonies, who were often in on the illicit trade. Americans struck back by organizing a boycott of the British goods that were subject to taxation, and began harassing the British customs commissioners. In an effort to quell the resistance, the British sent troops to occupy Boston, which only deepened the ill feeling.
A print of the Boston Massacre by Paul Revere, Simmering tensions between the British occupiers and Boston residents boiled over one late afternoon, when a disagreement between an apprentice wigmaker and a British soldier led to a crowd of colonists surrounding seven British troops. When the Americans began taunting the British and throwing things at them, the soldiers apparently lost what are the sibling tag questions cool and began firing into the crowd.
As the smoke cleared, three men—including an African American sailor named Crispus Attucks —were dead, and two others were mortally wounded. The massacre became a useful propaganda tool for the colonists, especially after Paul Revere distributed an engraving that misleadingly depicted the British as the aggressors. The British eventually withdrew their forces from Boston and repealed much of the onerous Townshend legislation.
But they left in place the tax on tea, and in enacted a new law, the Tea Actto prop up the financially struggling British East India Company. The act gave the company extended favorable treatment under tax regulations, so that it could sell tea at a price that undercut the American merchants who imported from Dutch traders.
The Sons of Libertya radical group, decided to confront the British head-on. Thinly disguised as Mohawks, they boarded three ships in Boston harbor and destroyed more than 92, what does average deviation mean of British tea by dumping it into the harbor.
To make the point that they were rebels rather than vandals, they avoided harming any of the crew or damaging the ships themselves, and the next day even replaced a padlock that had been broken. So when these bottom-of-the-rung people in Boston destroyed their tea, that was a serious thing to them. In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British government decided that it had to tame the rebellious colonists in Massachusetts. Yet another provision protected British colonial officials who were charged with capital offenses from being tried in Massachusetts, instead requiring that they be sent to another colony or back to Great Britain for trial.
But perhaps the most provocative provision was the Quartering Actwhich allowed British military officials to demand accommodations for their troops in unoccupied houses and buildings in towns, rather than having to stay out in the countryside. The quartering of troops eventually became one of the grievances cited in the Declaration of Independence. The Battle of Lexington broke out on April 19, British General Thomas Gage led a force of British soldiers from Boston to Lexington, where he planned to capture colonial radical leaders Sam Adams and John Hancockand then head to Concord and seize their gunpowder.
But American spies got wind of the plan, and with the help of riders such as What to do when your cat throws up Revereword spread what does 3- 9x32 scope mean be ready for the British. On the Lexington Common, the British force was confronted by 77 American militiamenand they began shooting at each other.
Seven Americans died, but other militiamen managed to stop the British at Concord, and continued to harass them on their retreat back to Boston.
The British lost 73 dead, with what is the new maroon 5 album called wounded and 26 missing in action. The bloody encounter proved to the British that the colonists were fearsome foes who had to be taken seriously. But that was before the brutal British naval bombardments and burning of the coastal towns of Falmouth, Massachusetts and Norfolk, Virginia helped to unify the colonies.
Leaders of the rebellion seized the burnings of the two ports to make the argument that the colonists needed to band together for survival against a ruthless enemy and embrace the need for independence—a spirit that ultimately would lead to their victory.
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Causes of the Revolutionary War
Sep 02, · The Revolutionary War (), also known as the American Revolution, arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government.
Like the Sugar Act , the Stamp Act was imposed to provide increased revenues to meet the costs of defending the enlarged British Empire.
Enraged colonists nullified the Stamp Act through outright refusal to use the stamps as well as by riots, stamp burning, and intimidation of colonial stamp distributors. A series of four acts, the Townshend Acts were passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert what it considered to be its historic right to exert authority over the colonies through suspension of a recalcitrant representative assembly and through strict provisions for the collection of revenue duties.
The acts were resisted everywhere with verbal agitation and physical violence, deliberate evasion of duties, renewed nonimportation agreements among merchants, and overt acts of hostility toward British enforcement agents, especially in Boston.
In response, in October , Parliament dispatched two regiments of the British army to Boston. In Boston, a small British army detachment that was threatened by mob harassment opened fire and killed five people, an incident soon known as the Boston Massacre. The soldiers were charged with murder and were given a civilian trial, in which John Adams conducted a successful defense.
Rather than intimidating Massachusetts and isolating it from the other colonies, the oppressive acts became the justification for convening the First Continental Congress later in Fifty-six delegates represented all the colonies except Georgia. On the night of April 18, , Paul Revere rode from Charlestown to Lexington both in Massachusetts to warn that the British were marching from Boston to seize the colonial armory at Concord. En route, the British force of men was met on Lexington Green by 77 local minutemen and others.
It is unclear who fired the first shot, but it sparked a skirmish that left eight Americans dead. At Concord, the British were met by hundreds of militiamen. Outnumbered and running low on ammunition, the British column was forced to retire to Boston. On the return march, American snipers took a deadly toll on the British. Total losses in the Battles of Lexington and Concord numbered British and more than 90 Americans. Some 2, British troops eventually cleared the hill of the entrenched Americans, but at the cost of more than 40 percent of the assault force.
The battle was a moral victory for the Americans. More than any other single publication, Common Sense paved the way for the Declaration of Independence. After the Congress recommended that colonies form their own governments, the Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and revised in committee.
Nathan Hale was captured by the British. He was hanged without trial the next day. Having been forced to abandon New York City and driven across New Jersey by the British, George Washington and the Continental Army struck back on Christmas night by stealthily crossing the ice-strewn Delaware River , surprising the Hessian garrison at Trenton at dawn, and taking some prisoners. The American triumph at Trenton and in the Battle of Princeton January 3, roused the new country and kept the struggle for independence alive.
Moving south from Canada in summer , a British force under Gen. His forces depleted, Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga. Following failures at the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown, Washington and 11, regulars took up winter quarters at Valley Forge , 22 miles 35 km northwest of British-occupied Philadelphia. Although its ranks were decimated by rampant disease, semi-starvation, and bitter cold, the reorganized Continental Army emerged the following June as a well-disciplined and efficient fighting force.
The French had secretly furnished financial and material aid to the Americans since , but with the signing in Paris of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance, the Franco-American alliance was formalized. France began preparing fleets and armies to enter the fight but did not formally declare war on Britain until June The U. Having fought valiantly in a number of battles earlier in the war, American Gen.
The Articles of Confederation , a plan of government organization that served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress and the federal government provided under the U. Constitution of , were written in —77 and adopted by the Congress on November 15, However, the articles were not fully ratified by the states until March 1, After winning a costly victory at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina, on March 15, , Lord Cornwallis entered Virginia to join other British forces there, setting up a base at Yorktown.
The military verdict in North America was reflected in the preliminary Anglo-American peace treaty of , which was included in the Treaty of Paris of By its terms, Britain recognized the independence of the United States with generous boundaries, including the Mississippi River on the west.
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