Digestive System Diseases
Nov 19, · Diseases of the Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts Biliary colic.. If a gallstone gets stuck in the cystic or common bile duct there is a strong peristaltic contraction Inflammation.. Gallstones cause irritation and inflammation of the walls of the gall . Digestive Disorders. Find diet information for a variety of digestive system issues such as constipation, celiac disease, heartburn, and irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Treatments Aren't One-Size-Fits-All.
Ergot poisoning is a type of illness associated with the ingestion of alkaloids produced by the fungi Claviceps purpurea C. Claviceps purpurea is a fungus classified under the fungi genus Claviceps. This specific type of fungus is found on rye, and also on crops like wheat and barley. In addition, Claviceps purpurea can effect plants and crops that are typically considered forage plants.
Thus, this type of fungus can also result in diseases within livestock. The life cycle of C. The fungi continues to undergo proliferation and destroys the plant ovary. The first stage of ergot infection is a white soft tissue, called Sphacelia segetum, that drops out of the host. The white soft tissue contains asexual spores which infect additional host plants. This tissue, present within the host, is then converted into a hard Sclerotium clavus within the husk.
At this specific stage, the alkaloids and lipids accumulate. Example of Ergot on Wheat : This image shows ergot on a wheat spike. The alkaloids, responsible for the ergot poisoning, are naturally occurring compounds that are mainly comprised of basic nitrogen atoms.
Alkaloids are produced within various organisms as a secondary metabolite. Secondary metabolites are most commonly produced in plants as a defense system.
The alkaloids produced by fungi are often toxic. Specifically, the alkaloid produced by Claviceps purpurea is ergoline based. The symptoms which present in individuals with ergot poisoning can be classified as convulsive symptoms and gangrenous symptoms. The convulsive symptoms include seizures and effects on the central nervous system that range from hallucinations to psychotic episodes. The gangrenous symptoms are a result of vasoconstriction induced by the alkaloids.
Peripheral systems, such as fingers and toes, are typically affected. More recently, ergot poisoning has been associated with an increased intake of ergot-based drugs.
Aflatoxin poisoning is a result of ingestion of aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus that have contaminated a food source. Aflatoxins are categorized as mycotoxins that are typically produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxins, although only synthesized by a few Aspergillus species, are considered to be one of the most important mycotoxins identified to date. Both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are well known for their production of aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are most commonly transmitted to humans through the diet.
Aflatoxins grow on whole grains and contaminate food supplies during processing, storage, or transport when there are favorable conditions for mold growth, specifically for the Aspergillus species. Aspergillus flavus : A species of Aspergillus that causes aflatoxin poisoning. Aflatoxin poisoning, or aflatoxicosis, occurs when there is ingestion of aflatoxin contaminated foods. Upon ingestion or exposure to aflatoxin, it is common to see injury to the liver. Aflatoxicosis is a primarily hepatic disease, as the liver is the target organ for this toxin in mammals.
Although the liver demonstrates the ability to what are 3 diseases of the digestive system the ingested aflatoxins, the intermediate formed is a reactive epoxide or a less harmful hydroxylated form referred to as M1. There have been various studies stating that metabolic activation of aflatoxins is required for the aflatoxin to exert its carcinogenic effects.
These metabolites are harmful to the liver and have been implicated in liver cancer development. The aflatoxins produced what are 3 diseases of the digestive system these Aspergillus species have been show to produce adducts altered forms of DNA.
These adducts are now used as a diagnostic factor to test for aflatoxin exposure by testing blood and urine. Aflatoxin poisoning or aflatoxicosis is rarely diagnosed in developed countries but continues to be an issue in underdeveloped countries.
In developed countries, commercial crops are screened for the presence of aflatoxins. However, in underdeveloped or developing countries, screening methods are lacking, or are in the process of being introduced.
Interestingly, a rise in homegrown food has been correlated with a slight increase in aflatoxin exposure via diet. Aflatoxin poisoning can be diagnosed as either acute or chronic. In cases of acute aflatoxicosis, an individual has been exposed to moderate to high levels of aflatoxins.
Acute aflatoxicosis is characterized by symptoms such as hemorrhaging; acute liver damage and issues with digestion; and absorption and metabolism of nutrients. In cases of chronic aflatoxicosis, an individual has been exposed to low to moderate levels of aflatoxins. Chronic aflatoxicosis is characterized by symptoms such as dysfunctional food conversion and slow growth rates.
Giardiasis, sometimes referred to as beaver fever, is caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia and results in diarrheal illness. Giardiasis is a protozoan disease caused by Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis, referred to as beaver fever, is a common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia how to use slow motion on iphone, also referred to as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalisinfects humans via the fecal-oral route and is also suspected to be zoonotic.
The organism is commonly found in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with fecal matter from infected humans or animals. Beavers typically spread the parasite in their fecal matter in rivers and streams hence, giardiasis is commonly referred to as beaver fever.
Individuals susceptible to infection by Giardia lamblia are those who come in frequent contact with individuals already infected. Travelers that spend time in wilderness area are at an increased risk due to ingestion of contaminated food or water sources and a lack of medical care or supplies.
Giardia infecting a small intestine : A scanning electron micrograph of the surface of the small intestine of a gerbil infested with Giardia sp. The life cycle, structure, and organization of Giardia lamblia promotes its survival for long periods of time outside the body.
The organism itself is protected by an outer shell that provides protection against numerous harsh environments. In addition, the shell provides protection against disinfectants including chlorine. The cysts and trophozoites, found in the fecal matter, are extremely resistant to harsh environments. It is the cysts that are ingested and passed from exposure to contaminated food, water, or by the fecal-oral route.
Once in the host, the trophozoites multiply via binary fission. They can either remain free within the lumen or attach to the mucosa by a sucking disk. Once the parasites move towards the colon, the encystation phase occurs and the cysts are infectious when passed in the stool.
Giardiasis is characterized as a disease of the gastrointestinal system. The symptoms include from fever, diarrhea, hematuria, stomach cramping, vomiting, flatulence, and loose stool.
The symptoms are typically present one to two weeks post infection how to get red wine out of white linen tablecloth can disappear and reappear cyclically. The pathogenecity of Giardia lamblia is characterized by its ability to coat the inside of the intestinal wall and inhibit nutrient absorption.
The ability of the protozoan to block nutrient absorption can result in vitamin B12 deficiency. Additionally, a development of lactose intolerance is often associated with giardiasis infection. Cryptosporidiosis is a type of parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium that infects the gastrointestinal system. How to rebuild your volkswagen air-cooled engine by tom wilson is a type of parasitic disease caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium.
Cryptosporidiosis is typically spread through the fecal-oral route and can be spread through contaminated water as well. Cryptosporiodiosis is one of most common waterborne diseases identified worldwide. The transmission of Cryptosporidium is based on successful ingestion of oocysts which are able to implant and infect the epithelial tissue of the intestine, hence, the gastrointestinal symptoms associated with cryptosporidiosis.
Cryptosporidium is classified as a protozoan within the Phylum Apicomplexa. Other pathogens classified in this phylum include the malaria parasite and the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. The life cycle of Cryptosporidium allows for growth in a single host.
The spore phase of the life cycle, also referred to as the oocyst stage, is the stage that allows survival of the pathogen in numerous harsh environments. The oocyst allows for survival against harsh chemicals including harsh disinfectants such as chlorine. The life cycle is characterized by the presence of both an asexual and sexual stage.
The oocysts, once ingested, excyst within the small intestine and release sporozoites which attach to the microvilli. The sporozoites then develop into trophozoites and undergo asexual reproduction via schizogony.
The trophozoites then develop into Type 1 and Type 2 merozoites which can either cause auto infection Type 1 or undergo releasal and attach the epithelial cells Type 2. Once released and attached, they will either develop in macrogamonts or microgamonts which correlate with male and female forms. Sexual reproduction occurs than zyogotes are developed. The zygote further develops into the oocyst which can either reinfect the host by rupturing and releasing sporozoites or how to start a career in web design excreted into the environment.
Life cycle of Cryptosporidium how to increase pc speed using cmd An overview of the life cycle of Cryptosporidium. The major symptom associated with individuals infected with Cryptosporidium is diarrhea. However, cryptosporidiosis is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals, such as those infected with the HIV virus. The symptoms of cryptosporidiosis in these cases are much more severe and can be fatal.
The oocysts can initiate infections by attaching to the brush border of the small intestine and attacking the epithelial cells. Additional symptoms associated with cryptosporidiosis include abdominal cramping, malnutrition, weight loss, and nausea. Cyclospora diarrheal infection, commonly referred to as travelers diarrhea or cyclosporiasis, is caused by a specific species of Cyclospora.
The protozoan that are categorized as cyclospora are defined by the spherical shape of the sporocysts. Specifically, Cyclospora cayetanensis is the species associated with the disease in both humans and primates. Cyclospora can be transmitted by consuming contaminated food or water. Incyclospora caused about infections in in the US from a salad mix imported from Mexico and used in restaurants in Texas and Arkansas.
The life cycle of Cyclospora begins when the host is exposed and ingests the pathogen either in its oocyst or spore form.
The oocyst is comprised of sporocytes which contain sporozoites.
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Digestive diseases affect millions every day. In fact, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, between 60 and 70 million people are affected by digestive diseases. In honor of Digestive Disease Week, we’ve put together a list of the five most common disorders that can threaten your digestive health, as well as their. Digestive Disease Topics. Accessed 12/26/ Get useful, helpful and relevant health + wellness information. enews. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Apr 19, · Major Digestive System Diseases. Your digestive system is made of the digestive tract or the alimentary canal. However, other organs like the liver and pancreas also play a big role in digestion. The digestive tract is the long tube of organs, including the .
There are various types of digestive system diseases, many of them having similar symptoms. Some of the more common types of digestive system diseases include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Crohn's disease, and gastritis.
Irritable bowel syndrome and stomach cancer are also common. As some of the symptoms of these conditions are similar, it is important for the patient to see a doctor in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, also referred to as GERD, is one of the more common digestive system diseases. This disease occurs when stomach acid or bile flows backward into the esophagus. Some of the more typical GERD symptoms include acid reflux , heartburn , and a dry cough. This condition can often be managed successfully with dietary changes and over-the-counter medications.
In the more severe cases, prescription medications or surgical intervention may be considered as possible treatment options. Crohn's disease is also among the most commonly diagnosed digestive system diseases. This type of disease causes inflammation and irritation to the digestive tract. Symptoms of Crohn's disease may include lower right abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Some patients with this disease may experience skin problems, fever, or unintentional weight loss.
Treatment for this disease may include nutritional supplements, prescription medications, or surgical intervention. Gastritis is another one of the more frequently diagnosed digestive system diseases. This type of disease is characterized by inflammation or erosion of the lining of the stomach. Symptoms may include nausea, indigestion , or abdominal pain.
Black, tarry stools, or vomit that resembles coffee grounds is also typical among those who suffer from gastritis. Treatment may consist of over-the-counter or prescription medications, dietary changes, or vitamin B injections. Irritable bowel syndrome is also considered to be among the more commonly diagnosed digestive system diseases.
This disease primarily affects the large intestine and may cause intermittent bouts of constipation and diarrhea. Other possible symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome include abdominal pain, bloating, and pressure caused by intestinal gas.
Treatment often includes dietary changes along with the use of over-the-counter or prescription medications. Stomach cancer is one of the more rare digestive system diseases. Symptoms of stomach cancer may include nausea, vomiting , or stomach pain or discomfort. Stomach cancer treatment depends on the stage of the disease and may include surgery, chemotherapy , or radiation treatments. Any questions or concerns about symptoms that may indicate a disease of the digestive system should be discussed with a doctor or other medical professional.
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