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Toilet Tank-Reservoir (Cistern) Flush Toilets & How They Work. Tank reservoir toilets have been in wide use since the 's and some tank reservoir or cistern flushed toilets have been in use for more than years. At left we see the flush handle on a modern tank or cistern operated gravity flush toilet. [Click to enlarge any image]. They can be easily identified by their distinctive chrome pipe-work, and by the absence of a toilet tank or cistern, wherever they are employed. Some flushometer models require the user to either depress a lever or press a button, which in turn opens a flush valve allowing mains-pressure water to flow directly into the toilet bowl or urinal.
A flush toilet also known as a flushing toiletwater closet WC Ч see also toilet names is a toilet that disposes of human waste urine and feces how to translate afrikaans to english using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their waste.
Flush toilets can be designed for sitting in which case they are also called "Western" toilets or for squatting, in the case of squat toilets.
How to help boyfriend with premature ejaculation modern toilets are designed to dispose of toilet paper also. The opposite of a flush toilet is a dry toiletwhich uses no water for flushing. Flush toilets are a type of plumbing fixture and usually incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped bend called a trap that causes water to collect in the toilet bowl to hold the waste and act as a seal against noxious sewer gases.
Most flush toilets are connected to a sewerage system that conveys waste to a sewage treatment plant ; where this is not available, a septic tank or composting system may be used. When a toilet is flushed, the wastewater flows into a septic tankor is conveyed to a treatment plant.
Associated devices are urinalswhich dispose of male urine, and bidetswhich use water to cleanse the anus, perineum, and genitals after using the toilet. A typical flush toilet is a fixed, vitreous ceramic bowl also known as a pan which is connected to a drain. After use, the bowl is emptied and cleaned by the rapid flow of water into the bowl. This flush may flow from a dedicated tank cisterna high-pressure water pipe controlled by a flush valve, or by manually pouring water into the bowl.
Tanks and valves are normally operated by the user, by pressing a button, pushing down on a handle, pulling a lever or how to change counter strike resolution out of game a chain. The water is directed around the bowl by a molded flushing rim around the top hoow the bowl or by one or more jets, so that the entire internal surface of the bowl how to calculate reserve replacement ratio rinsed with water.
A typical toilet has a tank fixed above the bowl which contains a fixed volume of water, and two devices. The first device allows part of the contents of the tank usually in the 3Ч6 liters range to be discharged rapidly into the toilet bowl, causing the contents of the bowl to be swept or sucked out of the toilet and into the drain, when the user operates the flush.
The second device automatically allows water to enter the tank until the water level is appropriate for a flush. The water may be discharged through a "toilet flapper valve" not to be confused with a type of check valvetgey through a siphon. A float usually commands the refilling device.
Toilets without cisterns are often flushed through a simple flush valve or "Flushometer" connected directly to the water supply. These are designed to rapidly discharge a limited volume of water when the lever or button is pressed then released. A toilet need not be connected to a water supply, but may be pour-flushed. The flushing can use as little as 2Ч3 litres.
The toilet can be cisterna to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine " or a "twin pit pour flush pit latrine". It can also be connected to a septic tank. A vacuum toilet uow a flush toilet that is connected to a vacuum sewer systemand removes waste by suction.
They may use very little water less than a quarter of a liter per flush or none,  whatever happened to kel mitchell in waterless urinals.
Some flush with coloured disinfectant solution rather than with water. Passenger train toiletsaircraft lavatoriesbus toilets, and ships with plumbing often use vacuum toilets. The lower water usage saves weight, and avoids water slopping out of the toilet bowl in motion. The flushing system provides a large flow of water into the bowl. They normally take the form of either fixed tanks of water or flush valves.
Flush tanks or cisterns usually incorporate a mechanism to release water from the tank and an automatic valve to allow how to become a think tank cistern to be refilled automatically. The tank typically collects between 6 and 17 litres 1. In modern installations the storage tank is usually mounted directly above and behind the bowl. Older installations, known as "high suite combinations", used a high-level cistern tankfitted above head height, activated by a pull chain connected to a flush lever on the cistern.
When more modern close-coupled cistern and bowl combinations were first introduced, these were first referred to as "low suite combinations". Modern versions have a neater-looking low-level cistern with a lever that the user can reach directly, or a close-coupled cistern that is even lower down and fixed directly to the bowl.
Tank fill valves are found in all tank-style toilets. The valves are of two main designs: the side-float what is box cloud storage and the concentric-float design. The side-float design has existed for over a hundred years.
The concentric design has toilet cisterns how do they work existed sinceowrk is gradually becoming more popular than the side-float design. The side-float design uses a float on the end of a lever to control the fill valve. The float is usually shaped like a ball, so the mechanism is often called a ball-valve or a ballcock cock in this context is an alternative how to make garlic and onion dip for valve; see, for example, stopcock.
The float was originally made from copper sheet, but it is now usually plastic. The float is located to one side of the main valve tower or inlet at the end toilet cisterns how do they work a rod or arm. As the float rises, so does the float-arm.
The arm connects to hoow fill valve that blocks the water flow into the toilet tank, and shuts off the water when the float reaches a set height. This maintains a constant level in the tank. The newer concentric-float fill valve consists of a tower which is encircled by a plastic float assembly. Operation is otherwise the same as a side-float fill valve, even toilet cisterns how do they work the float position is somewhat different. By virtue of its more compact layout, theh between the float and other obstacles tank insulation, flush valve, and so on is greatly reduced, thus increasing reliability.
Cisters concentric-float fill valve is also designed to signal to users automatically when there is a leak in the tank, by making much more noise when a leak is present than the older style side-float fill valve, which tends to be tiilet silent when a slow leak is present. In tanks using a flapper-flush valve, the outlet at the bottom of the tank is covered by a buoyant plastic or rubber cover, or flapper, which is held in place against a fitting the flush valve seat by water pressure. To flush the toilet, the user pushes a lever, which lifts the flush valve from the valve tehy.
The valve then floats clear of the seat, allowing the tank to empty quickly into the bowl. As the water level drops, the floating flush valve descends back to the bottom of the tank tollet covers the outlet pipe again.
This system is common in homes in the US and in continental Europe. Fromdue to a change in regulations, this flush system has also become available in the UK, where prior to thsy the siphon type flush was mandated.
Dual flush versions of this design are now widely available. They have one level of water for liquid waste and a higher level for solid waste. In the US, newer toilets have a 3" flapper-flush valve. Older toilets have a 2" flapper-flush valve. Some have a bell inlet for a faster more effective toioet. This system, invented by Albert Giblin and common in the UKuses a storage tank similar to that used in the flapper-flush-valve system above.
The siphon is formed of a vertical pipe that links the flush pipe to a domed chamber inside the cistern. A perforated disc, covered by a flexible plate or flap, is fitted inside this chamber and is joined by a rod to the flush lever.
Pressing the lever raises the disc, forces water over the top of the siphon into the vertical pipe, and starts the siphonic flow. Water flows through the perforated disc past toiet flap until the cistern is empty, at which point air enters the siphon and the flush stops.
The advantage of a siphon over the flush valve is that it has no sealing washers that toildt wear out and cause leaks, so it is favoured in places where there is a need to conserve water.
Until 1 Januarythe use of siphon-type cisterns was wok in the UK  but hoa that date the regulations additionally allowed pressure flushing cisterns and pressure flushing valves though the latter remained forbidden in houses. These valves can sometimes be more difficult to operate than a "flapper"-based flush valve because the lever requires more torque than a flapper-flush-valve system.
This additional torque is required at the tank lever because a certain amount of water must be moved up into the siphon passageway in order to initiate the siphon action in the tank.
Splitting or jamming of the flexible flap covering the perforated disc can cause the cistern to go out of order. Dual-flush versions of the siphon cistern provide a shorter flush option by allowing air into how to skip a grade in school siphon to stop the siphon action before the tank is empty. The siphon system can also be combined with an air box to allow multiple siphons to be installed in a single trough cistern.
Pressure-assisted toilets are sometimes found in both private single, multiple, and lodging installations as well as light commercial installations such as offices. Products from several companies use 1. The mechanism consists of a plastic tank hidden inside the typical ceramic cistern. When the tank fills with water, the air trapped inside compresses. When the air pressure inside the plastic tank reaches a certain level, the tank stops filling qork water.
A high-pressure valve goilet in the center of the vessel holds the air and water inside until the user flushes the toilet. During flushing, the user activates the valve via a button or lever, which releases the pressurized water into the bowl at a flow rate much higher than a conventional gravity-flow toilet.
An advantage includes lower water consumption than a gravity-flow toilet, or more effectiveness with a similar amount of water. As a result, wor, toilet does not clog as easily as those using non-pressurized mechanisms. However, there are some financial and safety disadvantages. These toilets are generally more expensive to purchase, and the plastic tanks need to be replaced about every 10 years. They also have a noisier flush than other models.
In addition, pressure-assisted tanks have been known to explode, causing serious injuries and property damage, resulting in a massive recall beginning in of over 1. Some newer toilets use similar pressure-assist technology, along with a bowl and trapway designed to enhance the siphon effect; they use only 0.
InWilliam Sloan first made available his "flushometer" style toilet flush valve, incorporating his patented design. Flushometer toilet flush valves are still often installed in commercial restrooms, and are frequently used what state is toy story set in both toilets and urinals.
Since they have no tank, they have no fill delay and can be used again immediately. They can be easily identified by their distinctive chrome pipe-work, and by the absence of a toilet tank or cistern, wherever they are employed. Some flushometer models require the user to either depress a lever or press a button, which in turn opens a flush valve allowing mains-pressure water to flow directly into the toilet bowl or urinal.
Other flushometer models are electronically triggered, using an infrared sensor to initiate the flushing process. Typically, on electronically triggered models, an override button is provided in case the user wishes to manually trigger flushing earlier.
Some electronically theyy models also incorporate a true mechanical manual override which can be used in the event of the failure of the electronic system. In retrofit installations, a self-contained battery-powered or hard-wired unit can be added to an existing manual flushometer to flush automatically when a user departs. Once a flushometer valve has been flushed, and after a preset interval, the flushometer mechanism closes the valve and stops the flow.
What Happens when a Toilet is Flushed: 3 Basic Operations
There is a variety of cistern types to accompany gravity-feed toilets, including close-coupled toilet cisterns, low-level toilet cisterns and high-level toilet cisterns. They all work in the same way, by supplying the water to flush out the waste, refilling the toilet pan and refilling themselves. Commercial Washrooms is an established subsidiary of Lan Services Ltd and previously known as Eco Washrooms. Initially created in as a small spin off from the parent company, Eco Washrooms developed into a significant online business. Our most popular products based on our customer review and their trust on the quality of the brand that we sell at the best possible price under one roof. We work hard to make a system that allows our customer to get what they want with ease of access. At MJ Bathrooms we keep easy return and replacement with no hesitation.
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This article explains how a flush toilet operates and describes the types, parts, and operation of the toilet cistern or toilet flush tank. This article series describes the different types and models of toilets: historical or old toilet types, wooden high wall-tank toilets, conventional reservoir tank toilets, low-flush toilets, water saving toilets, back-flush toilets, up-flush toilets, and even chemical toilets.
Here we explain how to diagnose and repair problems with toilets, leaks, flushes, odors, noises, running and wasted water. Tank reservoir toilets have been in wide use since the 's and some tank reservoir or cistern flushed toilets have been in use for more than years. At left we see the flush handle on a modern tank or cistern operated gravity flush toilet. While there have been improvements in toilet tank fill valves, flush valves, floats, and water savings, the design has remained about the same.
Following our description below of how the flush valve works and how the fill-valve re-fills the toilet tank or cistern we describe the operation of a variety of other toilet types including:. The toilet flush handle shown here, when pushed down, lifts the flush lever inside the tank in order to lift or open the flush valve flapper valve to flush the toilet.
Below you can see, in our first photo, the end of the flush lever that, lifted by the flush handle, pulls a chain that lifts and opens the flush valve. When a gravity type toilet is flushed, the toilet flush valve sends water out of the toilet tank or cistern conventional flush valves or directly from the building water supply without a toilet tank or cistern flushometer valves into the toilet bowl below to flush waste into the building drain system. The two most common toilet flush valves used on toilets that make use of a tank or cistern are the flapper type toilet flush valve illustrated just below and the tank ball type toilet flush valve illustrated further below.
Flapper type toilet flush valve : photo at left see below is a toilet flush valve that closes the opening at the bottom of the toilet tank using a semi-round flapper usually rubber rather than the rounded tank ball shown in the sketch.
Like the toilet tank ball type flush valve illustrated in the sketch below , the flapper valve is pulled up to open the toilet reservoir tank drain opening to send flush water down into the toilet.
The shape and position of the flapper cause it to remain in the open position until the water level in the toilet tank drops to nearly empty, then the flapper "flaps" down over the drain opening to stop the toilet flush cycle and to permit the toilet fill cycle to begin anew. On modern tank type toilets we see mostly flapper valves; tank ball flush valves below are still found on older equipment however. Once the flapper valve is closed, water pressure from the filling toilet tank or cistern presses the valve face against the valve seat, holding it shut against leakage.
Toilet flush valve repair: If your toilet is "running" and has a flapper valve, often the leak between cistern and bowl is at this valve.
Try cleaning the valve seat. If that doesn't work, a new flapper valve may cure the leak. Other repairs include an epoxy add-on new flush valve seat that glues atop the existing one, or else disassembly of the toilet tank to replace the entire assembly. If your toilet uses a tank ball flush valve, be sure that the lift rods move freely and are not bent or binding. The opening in the rod guide see sketch at left that guides the lift rod should be centered over the center of the tank ball.
Tank ball type flush valve : the control that sends water from the toilet tank or building water supply into the toilet bowl to flush away waste. In a traditional side float flush valve assembly sketch at left the toilet is flushed by pressing on a handle outside the toilet tank that lifts a trip lever that pulls a chain or rod that lifts a tank ball or a tank flapper that otherwise seals the bottom of the toilet tank.
For modern toilets important are designs that conserve water either through the valve design itself see Top Flush Control Toilets or by means of a plastic "dam" around the valve assembly.
The toilet flush valve sends water out of the toilet tank or cistern conventional flush valves or directly from the building water supply without a toilet tank or cistern flushometer valves into the toilet bowl below to flush waste into the building drain system.
Toilet flush valve repair:. If your toilet is "running" and has a flapper valve, often the leak between cistern and bowl is at this valve. There are many models of flush valves, using varying designs. Gravity flush toilet : sketch at left the conventional and most common water-operated toilet world-wide is flushed by water that flows from a reservoir tank into the toilet bowl by gravity; the reservoir tank must be above and is typically attached to or part of the toilet assembly, though early flush toilets illustrated below placed the flush tank much higher on the wall in an effort to obtain a more cleansing flush for early bowl designs.
When the toilet is "flushed" using its handle, a flush control valve see "tank ball in our sketch above opens to send water from the reservoir into the toilet bowl to flush it clean. Hatbox toilet : a tankless toilet design by Kohler illustrated below that uses an electric pump to deliver flush water and adequate water velocity. Overflow tube, toilet : the overflow tube item 8 in our sketch at left , is found on virtually all modern toilet flush control valve assemblies.
This tube prevents a malfunctioning toilet tank refill assembly from flooding the building. Unfortunately if the toilet drain is clogged and the toilet overflows you'll have a different sort of flood. During toilet tank re-fill, if the tank over-fills, the overflow tube blue 7 in sketch at left will excess water from the toilet reservoir tank down the overflow tube 8 into the toilet bowl.
This is a critical function since otherwise if the toilet fill-valve malfunctions water entering the toilet tank will fill the tank to overflowing and leak into the building. But if your toilet is "running" the problem may be just that - the fill valve is sending water continuously into the tank where it enters the overflow tube.
A second feature of most toilet fill valve assemblies and overflow tubes is that some water will be diverted from the fill valve into the overflow tube during the toilet tank fill-cycle - see the small curved blue tube marked 7 in our sketch above. This makes sure there is enough water in the toilet bowl before its next use.
Pressure-assist flush toilet : the toilet is flushed by water that is given a velocity boost by a pressure system using a pump,compressed, air, or other means. Typically pressure-assist toilet designs are found on water-saving low-flush-volume toilets. The toilet ball cock fill valve shown in our photo at above left is a traditional side-float brass ball cock valve by Urrer is the control that refills the toilet tank after a flush.
Concentric float toilet fill valves photo at above right omit the rod, side-arm, and float ball. Instead a float rises on a vertical shaft that also supports the fill control valve. In our photo my finger is pressing up on the lever that stops the flow of water into the toilet tank. You can see that an adjustable rod on the float below the valve will push up this stop lever on its own as the water level in the tank rises.
In some small-tank toilets we found that installing a concentric float toilet fill valve solved a problem of frequent jamming of the older side-float valve assembly whose float or rod would rub against the overflow tube or the toilet tank sides, jamming and giving recurrent "running toilet" problems. The toilet fill valve admits water into the toilet reservoir tank or cistern to refill the cistern following a toilet flush. Most fill valve designs also send some water through the overflow tube and into the toilet bowl during cistern re-fill.
Two common fill valve designs in current use are the ball-cock toilet fill valve and the concentric float toilet fill valve. Both of those designs are illustrated above. Synonyms for toilet fill valves include: ball cock valve, concentric float valve, toilet water supply valve, toilet tank fill valve.
The toilet tank float assembly activates the toilet fill valve as water level in the toilet tank or cistern drops during and at the end of a toilet flush. Illustrated above at concentric float toilet fill valves , the float for that device is a cylinder that moves down or up on a vertical shaft as tank cistern water level in the cistern falls or rises, to open or close the fill valve itself.
A ball cock toilet fill valve is opened by movement of a float arm rod attached to a round float ball illustrated at left that drops as water level in the cistern falls during a flush, and the ball cock valve is closed as the float rises, lifting the rod to which it is attached as the water level in the toilet tank rises to the fill line.
In our photo above left a white plastic ball cock fill valve is shown in lieu of the older traditional brass and bronze ball cock valve illustrated earlier on this page. Adjust the float lever angle so that combined with the ball cock shutoff adjustment the assembly stops water flow into the water tank when water reaches the fill line marked on the tank. Also be sure that the float ball moves freely in the toilet tank.
If the float ball rubs on the tank sides or end it is likely to jam and the toilet may not fill properly, or the toilet may run continuously. Overflow tube, toilet : the overflow tube photo above left , is found on virtually all modern toilet flush control valve assemblies.
External toilet overflow tubes : On some toilets such as the toilet found in the Brew Moon restaurant in New Zealand, a separate overflow drain is provided and is connected to a waste line blue arrows in our photo at above right. This toilet cistern overflow drain has the sole function of preventing the toilet cistern from over-filling and spilling into the building. Diverter tube empties into Overflow Tube : A second feature of most toilet fill valve assemblies and overflow tubes is that some water will be diverted from the fill valve into the overflow tube during the toilet tank fill-cycle Thin blue arrow in the photo at above left.
Here are descriptions of additional toilet designs that use different flush methods from those described above. A back-flush toilet that does use a reservoir tank is also produced for special situations such as a location that prohibits installing a drain line in the floor below the toilet.
At below left we illustrate a back-flush toilet installed in a Two Harbors Minnesota home built in the 's. Our second back-flush toilet photo below right shows a reservoir-tank back-flush toilet located in a basement in the Hudson Valley of New York. In this basement the sewer line ran just a few inches above the basement floor.
The plumber mounted a back-flush toilet on a short concrete pedestal, raising it just enough to flush into the nearby sewer line found in the wall behind the toilet. At above left is a photo of a modern tankless, back-flush, flush valve operated toilet installed in Molde, Norway. This toilet is also a back-flush model, sending waste out of the bowl towards the rear of the toilet and into a waste line in the building wall rather than in the floor.
The flush control for this tankless cisternless back-flush toilet is that round button just above the toilet tissue holder. Other water operated tankless toilets that are not back-flush models are discussed. A variation on the flush valve toilet is the up-flush toilet used in bathrooms whose toilet was located below the building's sewer line exit to the sewer or septic system.
An up-flush toilet relies on building water pressure to force the waste from the toilet up to a higher sewer line. Because an up-flush toilet that relies on building water pressure to work forms a cross connection, these toilets are not permitted by plumbing codes in most jurisdictions.
In our photo of an up-flush toilet you can see the flush control lever mounted on the wall at the upper right. Like the modern flush-valve toilet shown above, the up-flush toilet is also a back flush or rear-flush model. But don't confuse the two. The flush valve toilet shown above does not form a cross-connection, drains into a gravity-sewer line rather than an elevated sewer line, and it is permitted by current plumbing codes.
Excerpts are just below. Water saving models typically a pair of buttons giving different flush volumes illustrated below. Dual-flush water saving toilets typically deliver 1. Also see water conserving or water saving toilets that use different flush volumes for urine than for solid waste, now discussed at.
Water saving toilets use several strategies to reduce the volume of water used in flushing away waste: varying flush volume, pressure or power assisted flush using a small flush water volume, and reduced flush water volume using a reservoir barrier in th cistern or toilet tank.
Details for power assist or power flush toilets like Sloan's Flushmate are found. This vigorous flushing action cleans the bowl better than gravity units. Our toilet photographs below illustrate a tankless, electric-flush toilet produced by Kohler. As you can see below-left the toilet may be a little unfamiliar to new visitors at the New Hampshire inn where this unit was installed. Pressure-assisted flush toilets may use water pressure from the water mains to improve the flush cleansing of the bowl, or they may use a pump or an air bladder system that is in turn operated by water pressure.
By providing a more aggressive and higher velocity flush than a gravity flush toilet a pressure-assist system generally uses less water, ranging from 1.
For a newcomer, flushing this Kohler hatbox toilet could be a bit of a mystery. Searching for a flush lever or button finally leads to a round silver button located on the right side if the user is seated of the unit photo, below right. Pushing the flush button on the older unit that we tested produced an aggressive and roaring "flush" along with a bit of pump noise.
Other literature describes these toilets as "quiet". Our photo at below left gives a clue about how this toilet was powered.
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