Gonorrhea - CDC Fact Sheet
Mar 09, · Like strep throat, oral gonorrhea may cause a sore throat with redness, but strep throat often also causes white patches in the throat. Other symptoms of strep throat include: a sudden fever. Jun 24, · Antibiotics are the only proven way to reliably treat and cure gonorrhea. And with gonorrhea-causing bacteria strains becoming increasingly .
In the United States, an estimatednew N. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported communicable disease Urethral infections caused by N. Among women, gonococcal infections are commonly asymptomatic or might not produce recognizable symptoms until complications e.
PID can result in tubal scarring that can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Annual screening for N. Additional risk factors for gonorrhea include inconsistent condom use among persons who are not in mutually monogamous relationships, previous or coexisting sexually transmitted infections, and exchanging sex for money or drugs.
Clinicians should consider the communities they serve and might opt to consult local public health authorities for guidance on identifying groups at increased risk. Gonococcal infection, in particular, is concentrated in specific geographic locations and communities.
Screening for gonorrhea in men and older women who are at low risk for infection is not recommended A recent travel history with sexual contacts outside of the United States should be part of any gonorrhea evaluation. Specific microbiologic diagnosis of infection with N. NAAT allows for the widest variety of FDA-cleared specimen types, including endocervical swabs, vaginal swabs, urethral swabs menand urine from both men and women. However, product inserts for each NAAT manufacturer must be carefully consulted because collection methods and specimen types vary.
Culture is available for detection of rectal, oropharyngeal, and conjunctival gonococcal infection, but NAAT is not FDA-cleared for use with these specimens. Some laboratories have met CLIA regulatory requirements and established performance specifications for using NAAT with rectal and oropharyngeal swab specimens that can inform clinical management. Certain NAATs that have been demonstrated to detect commensal Neisseria species might have comparable low specificity when testing oropharyngeal specimens for N gonorrhoeae In cases of suspected or documented treatment failure, clinicians should perform both culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing because nonculture tests cannot provide antimicrobial susceptibility results.
Because N. Several non-nutritive swab transport systems are available that might maintain gonococcal viability for up to 48 hours in ambient temperatures However, because of lower sensitivity, a negative Gram stain should not be considered sufficient for ruling out infection in asymptomatic men. Detection of infection using Gram stain of endocervical, pharyngeal, and rectal specimens also is insufficient and is not recommended.
Outdated information in this document has been redacted accordingly. Please refer to the MMWR. Updates for the remaining gonorrhea recommendations are forthcoming. If chlamydial infection has not been excluded, providers should treat for chlamydia with doxycycline mg orally twice daily for 7 days.
During pregnancy, azithromycin 1 g as a single dose is recommended to treat chlamydia. If chlamydia coinfection is identified when pharyngeal gonorrhea testing is performed, providers should treat for chlamydia with doxycycline mg orally twice a day for 7 days.
No reliable alternative treatments are available for pharyngeal gonorrhea. For persons with a history of a beta-lactam allergy, a thorough assessment of the reaction is recommended. For persons with an anaphylactic or other severe reaction e. A test-of-cure is not needed for persons who receive a diagnosis of uncomplicated urogenital or rectal gonorrhea who are treated with any of the recommended or alternative regimens; however, any person with pharyngeal gonorrhea who is treated with any regimen should return 7 — 14 days after treatment for a test-of cure using either culture or NAAT.
All positive cultures for test-of-cure should undergo antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Symptoms that persist after treatment what causes a genetic disorder be evaluated by culture for N. Persistent urethritis, cervicitis, or proctitis also might be caused by other organisms see Urethritis, Cervicitisand Proctitis sections.
A high prevalence of N. Rather than signaling treatment failure, most of how to cure gonorrhea in throat infections result from reinfection caused by failure of sex partners to receive treatment or the initiation of sexual activity with a new infected partner, indicating a need for improved patient education and treatment of sex partners. Men or women who have been treated for gonorrhea should be retested 3 months after treatment regardless of whether they believe their sex partners were treated.
If retesting at 3 months is not possible, clinicians should retest whenever persons next present for medical care within 12 months following initial treatment. Use of ceftriaxone or cefixime is contraindicated in persons with a history of an IgE-mediated penicillin allergy e. Data are limited regarding alternative regimens for treating gonorrhea among persons who have either a cephalosporin or IgE-mediated penicillin allergy. A potential therapeutic option is dual treatment with intramuscular gentamicin mg plus oral azithromycin 2 g Spectinomycin for treatment of urogenital and anorectal gonorrhea can be considered when available.
Providers treating persons with cephalosporin or IgE-mediated penicillin allergy should consult an infectious-disease specialist. For more information, see appropriate treatment sections under Gonoccocal Infections. Cephalosporin treatment failure is the persistence of N. Suspected treatment failure has been reported among persons receiving oral and injectable cephalosporins Treatment failure should be considered in 1 persons whose symptoms do not resolve within 3—5 days after appropriate treatment and report no sexual contact during the post-treatment follow-up period and 2 persons with a positive test-of-cure i.
Treatment failure should also be considered in persons who have a positive culture on test-of-cure if obtained if there is evidence of decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, regardless of whether sexual contact is reported during the post-treatment follow-up period. Most suspected treatment failures in the United States are how to have clear skin on back to be re-infections rather than actual treatment failures 86, what does child support cover in missouri, However, in cases where reinfection is unlikely and treatment failure is suspected, before retreatment, relevant clinical specimens should be obtained for culture preferably with simultaneous NAAT and antimicrobial susceptibility testing if N.
Data are limited on the use of DNA amplification and sequencing for detection of genetic mutations associated with gonococcal antimicrobial resistance. All isolates of suspected treatment failures should be sent to CDC for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by agar dilution; local laboratories should store isolates for possible further testing if needed. Instructions for shipping isolates to CDC are available at www.
How to cure gonorrhea in throat treatment failure should be reported to CDC through the local or state health department within 24 hours of diagnosis. Suspected treatment failures first should be retreated routinely with the recommended regimen, because reinfections are more likely than actual treatment failures.
However, in situations with a higher likelihood of treatment failure than reinfection, relevant clinical specimens should be obtained for culture preferably with simultaneous NAAT and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed before retreatment.
Dual treatment with single doses of intramuscular gentamicin mg plus oral azithromycin 2 g can be considered, particularly when isolates are found to have elevated cephalosporin MICs A test-of-cure at relevant clinical sites should be obtained 7—14 days after retreatment; culture is the recommended test, preferably with simultaneous NAAT and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of N gonorrhoeae if isolated. In the only published study conducted in of the treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis among adults, all 12 study participants responded to a single 1-g IM injection of ceftriaxone On the basis of experience with other microbes that have developed antimicrobial resistance rapidly, a theoretical basis exists for combination therapy using two antimicrobials with different mechanisms of action e.
Because gonococcal conjunctivitis is uncommon and data on treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults are limited, consultation with an infectious-disease specialist should be considered. Patients should be instructed to refer their sex partners for evaluation and treatment. Disseminated gonococcal infection DGI frequently results in petechial how to get student visa pustular acral skin lesions, asymmetric polyarthralgia, tenosynovitis, or oligoarticular septic arthritis The infection is complicated occasionally by perihepatitis and rarely by endocarditis or meningitis.
Some strains of N. If DGI is suspected, NAAT or culture specimens from urogenital and extragenital sites, as applicable, should be collected and processed in addition to specimens from disseminated sites of how to apply for the police department e. All N. Hospitalization and consultation with an infectious-disease specialist are recommended for initial therapy, especially for persons who might not comply with treatment, have an uncertain diagnosis, or have purulent synovial effusions or other complications.
Examination for clinical evidence of endocarditis and meningitis should be performed. When treating for the arthritis-dermatitis syndrome, the provider can switch to how to insert drop down box in excel oral agent guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing 24—48 hours after substantial clinical improvement, for a total treatment course of at least 7 days.
No recent studies have been published on the treatment of DGI. The duration of treatment of DGI has not been systematically studied and should be determined in consultation with an how to become a baseball historian specialist. Treatment for DGI should be guided by the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pending antimicrobial susceptibility results, treatment decisions should be made on the basis of clinical presentation.
Therapy for meningitis should be continued with recommended parenteral therapy for 10—14 days. Parenteral antimicrobial therapy for endocarditis should be administered for at least 4 weeks.
Gonococcal infection frequently is asymptomatic in sex partners of persons who have DGI. Providers should instruct patients to refer partners with whom they have how to keep away deer sexual contact in the past 60 days for evaluation, testing, and presumptive treatment see Gonococcal Infection, Management of Sex Partners.
Top of Page. Prenatal screening and treatment of pregnant women is the best method for preventing GC infection among neonates. It is usually an acute illness that manifests 2—5 days after birth.
The prevalence of what is a freight broker surety bond among infants depends on the prevalence of infection among pregnant women, whether pregnant women are screened and treated for gonorrhea, and whether newborns receive ophthalmia prophylaxis. The most severe manifestations of N. Less severe manifestations include rhinitis, vaginitis, urethritis, and infection at sites of fetal monitoring.
To prevent gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, a prophylactic agent should be instilled into both eyes of all newborn infants; this procedure is required by law in most states. Ocular prophylaxis is warranted because it can prevent sight-threatening gonococcal ophthalmia, has an excellent safety record, is easy to administer, and is inexpensive.
The recommended prophylactic regimen prevents gonococcal ophthalmia; however, its efficacy for prevention of chlamydial ophthalmia is less clear, and it does not eliminate nasopharyngeal colonization by C.
This preparation should be instilled into both eyes of all neonates as soon as possible after delivery, regardless of whether they are delivered vaginally or by cesarean section. Ideally, ointment should be applied using single-use tubes or ampules rather than multiple-use tubes.
If prophylaxis is delayed i. Erythromycin is the only antibiotic ointment recommended for use in neonates. Silver nitrate and tetracycline ophthalmic ointment is no longer manufactured in the United States, bacitracin is not effective, and povidone iodine has not been studied adequatelyGentamicin ophthalmic ointment has been associated with severe ocular reactions in neonates and should not be used for ocular prophylaxisIf erythromycin ointment is not available, infants at risk for what are people from nicaragua called to N.
However, identifying and treating this infection is especially important, because ophthalmia neonatorum can result in perforation of the globe of the eye and blindness Infants at increased risk for gonococcal ophthalmia include those who did not receive ophthalmia prophylaxis and whose mothers had no prenatal care or have a history of STDs or substance abuse.
Gonococcal ophthalmia is strongly suspected when intracellular gram-negative diplococci are identified on Gram stain of conjunctival exudate, justifying presumptive treatment for gonorrhea after appropriate cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for N. Presumptive treatment for N.
Jul 26, · Mix three drops of tea tree oil with three drops of coconut oil and place the mixture on a clean bandage. Place the bandage on the infected area and change the bandage at least once a day if not twice. Alternatively, taking a warm bath with a few drops of tea tree oil can also help with gonor. Aug 26, · Taking antibiotic medications is the right method of treatment for gonorrhea in throat. Very often gonorrhea attacks on throat if the person has oral sex. Bacteria exist on the saliva of the throat and while insertion of anus or any other object like sex toys it will get transmitted to other person. Gonorrhea Treatment If you have this STD, your doctor will likely prescribe two antibiotics: ceftriaxone and either azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) or doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin). Ceftriaxone.
Basic Fact Sheet Detailed Version. Basic fact sheets are presented in plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases.
The content here can be syndicated added to your web site. Print Version pdf icon. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease STD that can infect both men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages years.
You can get gonorrhea by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea. A pregnant woman with gonorrhea can give the infection to her baby during childbirth. If you are sexually active, you can do the following things to lower your chances of getting gonorrhea:. If you are sexually active, have an honest and open talk with your health care provider and ask whether you should be tested for gonorrhea or other STDs.
If you are a sexually active man who is gay, bisexual, or who has sex with men, you should be tested for gonorrhea every year. If you are a sexually active woman younger than 25 years or an older woman with risk factors such as new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection, you should be tested for gonorrhea every year.
If you are pregnant and have gonorrhea, you can give the infection to your baby during delivery. This can cause serious health problems for your baby. If you are pregnant, it is important that you talk to your health care provider so that you get the correct examination, testing, and treatment, as necessary. Treating gonorrhea as soon as possible will make health complications for your baby less likely.
Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, men who do have symptoms, may have:. Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they are often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. Symptoms in women can include:. Rectal infections may either cause no symptoms or cause symptoms in both men and women that may include:.
You should be examined by your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms or if your partner has an STD or symptoms of an STD, such as an unusual sore, a smelly discharge, burning when urinating, or bleeding between periods. Most of the time, urine can be used to test for gonorrhea. Yes, gonorrhea can be cured with the right treatment. It is important that you take all of the medication your doctor prescribes to cure your infection.
Medication for gonorrhea should not be shared with anyone. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not undo any permanent damage caused by the disease. It is becoming harder to treat some gonorrhea, as drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing. If your symptoms continue for more than a few days after receiving treatment, you should return to a health care provider to be checked again. You should wait seven days after finishing all medications before having sex.
To avoid getting infected with gonorrhea again or spreading gonorrhea to your partner s , you and your sex partner s should avoid having sex until you have each completed treatment. Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men. In women, untreated gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease PID. Some of the complications of PID are. In men, gonorrhea can cause a painful condition in the tubes attached to the testicles.
In rare cases, this may cause a man to be sterile, or prevent him from being able to father a child. Rarely, untreated gonorrhea can also spread to your blood or joints.
This condition can be life-threatening. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Minus Related Pages. Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea can cause very serious complications when not treated, but can be cured with the right medication. Basic Fact Sheet Detailed Version Basic fact sheets are presented in plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. STDs Home Page. See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health. Find an STD testing site near you. ZIP Code:. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
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